Ruthenian dating service
The few contemporary Soviet scholars who had access to these records assumed that they were part of the Lithuanian Metrica, and they failed to realize - or were not free to explore - the extent to which the documentation contained is closely intertwined with that of contiguous books of the Crown Metrica now in Warsaw, from which they have been separated for up to two hundred years.
The first part of this study considers the general types of records maintained in the royal chanceries of the Commonwealth: the recordkeeping practices, linguistic usage, and legal provisions that led to the creation of a separate series of record books with Ruthenian documents addressed to the palatinates of Volhynia, Kyiv, and Bratslav after the Union of Lublin in 1569; the chancery practices and Ruthenian chancery officials and the character of the Ruthenian books to 1629; the increasing polonization after the Polish annexation of the lands of Chernihiv and Novhorod Siveria in 1618 that contributed to the gradual demise and subsequent eclipse of separate records for those Ruthenian palatinates; and the incorporation of Ukrainian-relevant documentation into the more general Crown records books during the wartime decades of the 1650s and 1660s.Shifting political fortunes over the centuries have wreaked havoc with documentary records and have obscured the subsequent archival organization and location of major groups of sources pertaining to Ukrainian lands.The complex problems involved are particularly acute with reference to Polish Crown chancery records for the traditionally Ukrainian lands (i.e., those earlier part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania) that came under the rule of Poland with the Union of Lublin in 1569, as part of the newly created Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.Following the Third Partition of Poland (1795) many high-level Polish and Lithuanian archives, including the royal chancery records known as the Crown Metrica and the Lithuanian Metrica were confiscated from Warsaw by order of Catherine II and brought to St. These included chancery records relating to Ukrainian lands administered by the Crown along with other records from the Commonwealth and earlier Polish and Lithuanian archives.Although most records of provenance specifically in the Polish Crown chancery were eventually returned to Poland under the terms of the Treaty of Riga (1921), one very important group of record books from the Crown Metrica has been retained in Moscow to this day.Twenty-eight volumes (dating from 1569 to 1673) with official copies of Crown documents addressed to the Ukrainian lands that comprised the Polish palatinates of Volhynia, Kyiv, Bratslav, and Chernihiv are still held in the Russian State Archive of Early Acts - RGADA (Rossiiskii gosudarstvennyi arkhiv drevnikh aktov).
Separated from the rest of the Crown Metrica with which they had been created and traditionally stored until the end of the eighteenth century, these volumes were erroneously inventoried in St.
Petersburg in the nineteenth century as part of the Lithuanian chancery records, the so-called Lithuanian Metrica.
As a result, scholars often failed to recognize their provenance in the Crown chancery and their consequent importance for Ukrainian history.
The analysis presented shows the extent to which scholars of Ukrainian history and culture of the period need to consider the Ruthenian series within the context of the more general body of Polish Crown chancery records of which they form an integral part.
The second part of this study focuses on a technical analysis of the manuscript volumes of the Ruthenian records themselves, including their bindings; a technical analysis of the registers describing the documentary contents of the Ruthenian books that were prepared for the Crown chancery in Warsaw; the archival fate of the Ruthenian series following the demise of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795; and the archeographic fate of documents in the Ruthenian books in terms of their scholarly publication.
This initial analysis serves as an appropriate introduction to the following textual edition of original titles of the documents themselves as found in all of the extant Ruthenian volumes, together with the earliest document-by-document register prepared for the Crown chancery by Stefan Kazimierz Hankiewicz (d.